The concept of spacetime arose from special relativity and was proposed by Minkowski as a way to understand special relativity. There have been various questions on this site that expand on this. See for example What's the difference between space and time? The point of this is that we didn't start with an idea of spacetime and then try and work back to special relativity. Spacetime is a concept that emerged from SR.
Exactly the same is true in general relativity, except that the metric is now variable rather than fixed and as you say in your question, the metric is determined by the presence of matter or more precisely the stress-energy tensor.
So in general relativity spacetime is defined as that which obeys the Einstein equation. That's why it doesn't make sense to ask how matter can warp spacetime, because that is the way that spacetime is defined. You wouldn't be the first to find this slightly unsatisfactory and indeed Einstein himself was uneasy with an equation that had geometry on one side and matter on the other.
Hence his famous comment about marble and wood. Nevertheless, as far as we know GR works perfectly. You are certainly at liberty to start with a different concept of spacetime and see where it leads, but you will find it hard to improve on GR!
The OP seems to be aligned with the non-absolute space -time championed by Leibniz. A little bit of history: Newton and Leibniz debated more than just calculus. The former had an idea of space and time as real substanceswhile the latter thought of them more as conveniences for mathematically modeling the things we actually care about.JULY 2020 US CLIMATE REPORT
Leibniz and after a fashion Mach and Einstein felt all we had was relations between objectsanything else e. See for instance the Stanford philosophy encyclopedia for more details. If you want, you can think of GR in this way too. Start with a distribution of real mass, energy, momentum, etc. Whether you take this to be a physical thing or not is the crux of your questionbut it doesn't really matter in solving the problem. Sign up to join this community.
Obviously a large fraction of these quickly spent more of their mass as propellant or de-orbited, so it has no physically meaning interpretation. The total number of orbital launches each year can be found on Wikipedia. It would follow that if you had the payload for each one of these launches, or a good estimate of average payload, you could find the total mass that has been sent into orbit over human history.
I found one source that gives the total number of orbital launches as 5,which I think is as of An obvious approach is to take the number of launches, and multiply by some generic payload mass to get an estimate. So far this is the best I can find online.
There is the problem of military launches, in that we categorically don't have information about those payloads. I did find one source that estimates that tons were put into orbit in That year is probably not representative. The code visits a website that lists launches by yearand from each year's page it visits each launch's dedicated webpage.
From there the code finds the "Mass" table cell. It then extracts the text of the next cell, pulls out the first integer, and adds that to the running total mass.
Since the answer is in code, it can be periodically rerun as new launches occur and as details of old launches are revised. Here is part of the answer: a chronologigal list of all orbital launches and launch attempts for each year. The other part is probably to cross this with the payload each mission delivered to orbit. My son modified the program to dump out data yearly, and also report the number of launches with unknown payload mass.
I corrected the data using:. Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. What is the total mass sent into orbit over all history? Ask Question.Essay on small scale industries
Asked 7 years, 5 months ago. Active 12 months ago. Viewed 5k times. ReactingToAngularVues 8, 1 1 gold badge 34 34 silver badges 71 71 bronze badges. And do you count failed launches? Payloads that deorbited within hours or days?The instrument used in MS is called mass spectrometer.
The three main parts of a mass spectrometer are the ion source, the mass analyzer, and the detector. Step 1: Ionization. The initial sample may be a solid, liquid, or gas. The sample is vaporized into a gas and then ionized by the ion source, usually by losing an electron to become a cation. Even species that normally form anions or don't usually form ions are converted to cations e.
The ionization chamber is kept in a vacuum so the ions that are produced can progress through the instrument without running into molecules from air. Ionization is from electrons that are produced by heating up a metal coil until it releases electrons. These electrons collide with sample molecules, knocking off one or more electrons. A positive-charged metal plate pushes the sample ions to the next part of the machine. Note: Many spectrometers work in either negative ion mode or positive ion mode, so it's important to know the setting in order to analyze the data.
Step 2: Acceleration. The purpose of acceleration is to give all species the same kinetic energy, like starting a race with all runners on the same line. Step 3: Deflection. The ion beam passes through a magnetic field which bends the charged stream.
Lighter components or components with more ionic charge will deflect in the field more than heavier or less charged components. There are several different types of mass analyzers. A time-of-flight TOF analyzer accelerates ions to the same potential and then determines how long is needed for them to hit the detector. If the particles all start with the same charge, the velocity depends on the mass, with lighter components reaching the detector first.
Step 4: Detection. A detector counts the number of ions at different deflections. Detectors work by recording the induced charge or current caused by an ion striking a surface or passing by.
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Because the signal is very small, an electron multiplier, Faraday cup, or ion-to-photon detector may be used. The signal is greatly amplified to produce a spectrum.How can meteorologists quickly discern the information they need to issue timely forecasts and warnings?
Scientists are working on new ways to combine information from multiple ABI channels to enhance meteorological features of interest. The final product highlights atmospheric and surface features depending on the recipe enlisted that are difficult or more time-consuming to distinguish with single-channel images alone.
Also, certain features are not always readily apparent from single channel imagery, but instead require taking the difference between two bands and scaling the output appropriately. These types of advanced data manipulations can be difficult for a forecaster working under tight deadlines.
RGBs are an excellent way to display multispectral information in a single, easy-to-interpret image. RGBs can also be overlaid with quantitative information such as model data or other observational data, enabling more sophisticated analysis. GeoColor can be used to differentiate clouds from other features, such as smoke or blowing dust during the daytime, and for nighttime cloud detection.
The design and construction of visually intuitive displays bring artistry into the fold. For the RGB to be most useful, it must clearly communicate multiple features unambiguously within a single display. With ABI, the canvass, brushes and paints available to developers in this regard have expanded dramatically.
Other examples include day snow fogsulfur dioxidevolcanic ashday cloud convectionnighttime microphysicsand day land cloud fire. This type of imagery combines water vapor and infrared imagery from the ABI and is used to monitor the evolution of cyclones and jet streaks.
It provides information on the middle and upper levels of the troposphere and distinguishes between high and mid-level clouds. Warmer air masses appear bright green, while colder and drier air masses appear blue and brown, respectively. High clouds appear white in this imagery and blue areas indicate cold, polar air. View animation of this air mass RGB. Forecasters can use this RGB to quickly identify the various stages of convective cloud development as they progress from cyan to green to yellow.
I'd like to find a fairly precise location of the center of mass of the ISS. I understand it moves for several reasons, including shifting of loads, flexing, and thermal expansion, but to say 1 meter precision. I'm guessing it falls within the main structural truss, within Truss Segment Zeros S0near where the "crew axis" crosses, but I haven't found anything definitive.
I'd like to plot the microgravity field in 3D using Blender. The longitudinal x-axis of multiple core modules, including the Zarya Functionalni Gruzvoi Blok FGB and Unity Node 1, is parallel with the analysis coordinate system axis XA, positive in the direction of the velocity vector. Positive YA axis runs parallel with the starboard truss from the center point at S0. Axis ZA completes the triad, pointing to the nadir. The largest part of this document is then devoted to giving you the information about the different configurations of the ISS.
For example, for the configuration after the separation the shuttle during STS see pageyou get:. That's after most of the assembly was finished, but about 8 t of equipment was since installed, most of it during STS, so you may have to look for a more current version of the document if you need high precision information on the current state of the station.
Sign up to join this community. The best answers are voted up and rise to the top. Where is the center of mass of the ISS relative to it's internal coordinates? Ask Question. Asked 3 years, 9 months ago. Active 3 years, 9 months ago. Viewed times.
Mass Spectrometry - What It Is and How It Works
Active Oldest Votes. For example, for the configuration after the separation the shuttle during STS see pageyou get: Center of mass: X: JulianHzg JulianHzg 1 1 silver badge 4 4 bronze badges.
It will take me a bit of time to look through this, thank you very much!! Briefly and roughly speaking, the CG is trailing a few meters "behind and below" the spacecraft origin, to using completely imprecise, non-engineering language. I promise to do my due diligence and read through.
Thank you very much for such a thorough answer!! Sign up or log in Sign up using Google. Sign up using Facebook. Sign up using Email and Password. Post as a guest Name. Email Required, but never shown. The Overflow Blog.Speech therapy recruitment board application program
Obviously the mass of a ship is going to vary widely based on in its dimensions and purpose a m long freighter will have a very different mass than a m long battleship.
That being said, I am trying to come up with some reasonable estimates and real world comparisons so that I could quickly estimate the mass of any ship. I have looked at the mass of nautical ships, aircraft, real spacecraft, and fictional space craft; the numbers seem like they vary so much that I am not really sure where to go from here.
As for technology level, I am thinking something like years in the future. Because FTL is out, I am imagining a solar system where travel between plants and satellites is relatively easy and quick like a few months to outer solar system instead of yearswhere the OORT cloud is the untamed frontier, and if humans have left the solar system, its only in generation ships which effectively are cut off from the rest of humanity.
There are a couple of paragraphs on estimating the size a ship based on the tonnage of its cargo, which could of course be used to calculate tonnage from size. This is really perfect for my purposes, because even though I asked about mass specifically, the real problem I am trying to solve is how large do ships need to be to accomplish "x" task. I was probably going about it slightly wrong as I was trying to think in terms of "how large is a plane, or an ocean liner, or a battleship, etc.
Please read the Atomic Rockets: Basic Design. It has everything you need to know. The reason no one can answer your question specifically is because spacecraft are not designed generically. Each spacecraft is designed to optimally complete its mission. A spacecraft designed for one purpose e. Make sure the hot end points towards the ground: If you don't, then you will not go to space today. These difficulties with building spacecraft are sometimes called both jokingly and not jokingly the Tyranny of the Rocket Equation.
For another take on this Tyranny, you might just read the story "The Cold Equations". These equations are unfeeling and don't care about intentions, feelings, or most other "warm" sentiments.
The following is excerpted with editing from Atomic Rockets :. But that propellant has mass as well. And the second slug of propellant has mass as well, so you'll need a third slug of propellant for the second slug of propellant — you see how it gets expensive fast.
So you want to minimize the payload mass as much as possible or you will be paying through the nose with propellant. That includes such things as engines, structures, radiation shielding, food, people, life support, unburned fuelunused propellant, etc.
Unless you're using very high specific impulse engines, you won't go on a cruise around the Solar System. People will only travel from point to point if they have a specific mission to perform. Many smart people have wondered the same question for a long time.
These smart people have developed many different plausible spaceship designs for different missions. You may want to browse through the list and see which of these fit your needs. Spacecraft design is like no other designed craft used on Earth.
The closest thing to spacecraft design would be high performance military aircraft. However, spacecraft are more expensive per pound by at least an order of magnitude.Not a MyNAP member yet?
Register for a free account to start saving and receiving special member only perks. Below is the uncorrected machine-read text of this chapter, intended to provide our own search engines and external engines with highly rich, chapter-representative searchable text of each book. Payloads and ancillary equipment also must be protected from undesirable distortion, vibration, and temperature changes.
Appendages such as antennas and reflectors that are too big to fit into the spacecraft in their operational configurations have to be packaged in collapsed states during launch and subsequently deployed.
These design requirements should be met within guidelines for weight, cost, and reliability conditions that are always inextricably coupled and have to be reassessed in the context of the small spacecraft philosophy. Structural weight of spacecraft has historically been only about 20 percent of the total dry weight. However, structural weight saving may assume accentuated importance for many small spacecraft missions, where each kilogram shaved from the structure is precious, and may provide increased capacity for additional payload, autonomous control devices, or auxiliary equipment.
However, this emphasis on low weight may be tempered in some small spacecraft applications that involve demands for low cost, easy adaptability, and growth capability. Although the spacecraft structure and the material of which it is composed are inextricably linked entities in their influences on cost, strength, stiffness, weight, reliability, and adaptability to change, it is nevertheless convenient to discuss separately issues that may be regarded as being predominately in either the structures or materials category.
While it does not appear that much attention has been paid to optimizing the spacecraft structural configuration, future missions will require more efficient design of the central bus structure.
Fortunately, past Spacecraft Structures and Materials research and flight application in airplanes and large space buses have made available proven, high-efficiency configurations such as stiffened shell structures and skin-stiffener panels.
The status of these enhanced spacecraft structures is discussed below. Deployable Structures In order to accomplish its mission, a small spacecraft may require an appendage, such as a boom or a surface, that is very large relative to the size of the spacecraft. Such appendages must be packaged in collapsed states during launch and subsequently deployed prior to operation. Past and present spacecraft have used a variety of articulated deployable structures as booms supporting instruments or solar cell blankets or as area structures forming antennas or solar arrays.
Some of these deployable structures were developed during the s and early s for use on the small spacecraft of that time, but during the past two decades, advanced development at NASA and DoD in the area of deployable structures has been directed almost entirely toward large antennas and platforms, particularly those for which precision is a dominant requirement.
Nevertheless, the technologies developed may be useful for small spacecraft, particularly if high accuracy is required.Timeline of the bible an overview of salvation history
Most existing deployable structures are deemed reliable only by virtue of being thoroughly tested by repeated ground-based deployments, which is complicated and expensive because of the need to counteract the effects of gravity on configurations that are designed to operate in the gravity-free space environment.
Even so, recent flight experience has involved a distressing number of deployment hangups. Inexpensive small spacecraft may require new and simpler reliable deployable designs. One of the present thrusts of development efforts involves the use of inflatables, which are possibly cheaper and more dependable than articulated structures. Control-Structures Interaction and Smart Structures The age of control-structures interactions is well underway, and that of its offspring, smart stnuctures,2 has dawned.Speech impediment symptoms of anxiety disease
These technologies have particular relevance to small spacecraft designs.
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